2 edition of Transcriptional activity of Chx10 and Vsx1, paired-like homeodomain proteins critical for retinal development. found in the catalog.
Transcriptional activity of Chx10 and Vsx1, paired-like homeodomain proteins critical for retinal development.
Kimberley Monique Dorval
Written in English
Chx10 and Vsx1 are homeodomain proteins essential for normal retinal development in humans and mice. Homeodomain (HD) proteins regulate gene expression by activating or inhibiting genes involved in cell-type determination during development. In Chx10 and Vsx1 null mice, retinal bipolar neurons fail to differentiate properly. Elucidating the activity and targets of HD proteins is fundamental to understanding their biological function. Here we show that Chx10 and Vsx1 can function as transcriptional repressors. This suggests that Chx10 and Vsx1 may promote bipolar development by inhibiting non-bipolar-specific gene expression. Indeed, we demonstrated that Chx10 bound several photoreceptor-specific gene elements in vitro and was present at these genes in vivo. Misexpression of Chx10 led to increased bipolar cell numbers at the expense of rod photoreceptors and Chx10 repressed the promoter of the photoreceptor-specific gene arrestin in transient assays. Intriguingly, in the absence of Chx10, retinal cells expressed terminal differentiation markers for Muller glial. This suggests that Chx10 is sufficient but not required to suppress photoreceptors, and required but not sufficient to inhibit glial cell development. Interestingly, Chx10 potentiated a subset of activators in chick neuronal cultures suggesting that Chx10 may function as a weak context-dependent activator. Further, in vivo ChIP-western analysis demonstrated Chx10-associated chromatin contained both silent and active histone marks. It is possible that Chx10 associates with one set of targets that is active and a different set that is repressed. Mutations in Vsx1 are linked to inherited corneal diseases. Analysis of several Vsx1 disease-causing mutations revealed a HD mutation, R166W, that impaired DNA-binding and transcriptional repression. Therefore, Chx10 and Vsx1 may control retinal bipolar cell specification or differentiation by repressing genes required for the development of other cell types.
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